These youths are suffering from kidney failure

These youths are suffering from kidney failure

The symptoms that cause kidney failure depend, on the one hand, on whether it is an acute or a chronic renal insufficiency. The stage of the disease also has a major influence on the symptoms that occur and how pronounced they are. Read more about the signs of various forms of renal insufficiency here.

Acute kidney failure: symptoms

Acute kidney failure in many cases begins with nonspecific symptoms such as rapid fatigue, difficulty concentrating and nausea. The urinary excretion goes back. If the excreted amount of urine is less than 500 milliliters in 24 hours, doctors speak of an oliguria. If the patient even excretes less than 100 ml of urine during the same period of time, there is an anuria.

The declining urine excretion leads to water retention in the tissue, so-called edema. They form mainly in the legs. Later, the water, which can no longer excrete the diseased kidneys, also in other organs, for example, in the lungs (pulmonary edema), which accumulates air shortage.

Acute kidney failure changes the composition of the blood salts (blood electrolytes). Especially important is the increase in potassium: This so-called hyperkalemia can cause life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias, dizziness and short loss of consciousness.

The cause of acute renal insufficiency can influence the symptoms: prerenal renal insufficiency triggers symptoms of dehydration such as thirst, low blood pressure, dry mucous membranes, and poorly filled neck veins. Some patients also experience nausea, vomiting and/or diarrhea. In contrast, a postrenal kidney failure mainly characterized by colicky pain in the lower abdomen.

Chronic kidney failure: symptoms
The type of chronic kidney failure (chronic renal insufficiency) depends mainly on the underlying disease (such as diabetes or hypertension ). The sequelae that result from the kidney weakness, shape the symptoms in later stages.

initial stage
Initially, chronic kidney failure does not cause any symptoms for a long time: as long as kidney function is only slightly limited, the patient usually does not notice it. Some people complain about uncharacteristic symptoms such as poor performance and tiredness. Another sign of chronic kidney failure can be frequent urination, with the urine very light and poorly concentrated.

Advanced stage
In the further course, chronic kidney failure is often accompanied by the following symptoms:

High blood pressure (hypertension) – occurring for the first time or increasingly difficult to adjust
low urine levels (less than half a liter per day – about one and a half liters per day are normal)
sometimes red-colored urine (due to decomposition products of the red blood pigment)
foaming urine when urinating (hint at the protein in the urine )
Fluid accumulation (edema) in the body, especially on the legs and eyelids
increased susceptibility to infections
Anemia (renal anemia ) and associated fatigue, weakness, concentration problems, decreasing exercise capacity and paleness or café-au-lait-staining of the skin (dirty yellow skin color)
bone pain
Muscle aches
Itching and burning in the legs
Nausea and vomiting
The progression of chronic renal insufficiency gradually damages almost all the organs and organ systems of the body – the medical profession speaks of uremic syndrome. It leads to pathological changes in the cardiovascular system, hematopoietic system, gastrointestinal tract, nervous system, the endocrine system as well as the skin and bones. The complaints become increasingly serious, the more the kidneys lose their function. Finally, in terminal renal failure, symptoms such as severe shortness of breath, irregular heartbeat, drowsiness, somnolence, convulsions, and coma are present.